DELL LATITUDE TSXJ ALPS DUAL POINTING DRIVER DETAILS:
|File Size:||23.5 MB|
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DELL LATITUDE TSXJ ALPS DUAL POINTING DRIVER
Atmospheric aerosol particles affect the quality of our life in many different ways. The interaction be- tween atmospheric aerosols and climate system is the domi- nant uncertainty in predicting the radiative forcing and future climate IPCC, ; Andreae and Rosenfeld, ; Myhre, ; Quaas et al.
The effects of aerosols on temperature and precipitation patterns can be seen mainly over regional and continental scales. Secondly, aerosol particles deteriorate both human health and visibility in urban areas Pope and Dockery, ; Hand and Malm, ; Anderson, Swart, ; Arneth et al. Better understanding and quan- Dell Latitude tSxJ Alps Dual Pointing of the above aerosol effects in the atmosphere re- quires detailed information on how different sources includ- ing those related to the biosphere and atmospheric transfor- mation processes modify the properties of atmospheric par- ticles and the concentrations of trace gases.
It also requires the development of advanced instrumentation and method- ologies for measuring and validating atmospheric composi- tion changes and understanding key atmospheric processes Laj et al. The project brought together several leading European research groups, state-of-the-art infrastructure and some key scientists from non-EU countries to investigate the role of aerosol on cli- mate and air quality. Altogether 48 partners from 24 coun- tries participated in the project. We also quantify the side effects of possible air quality directives on aerosol concentrations and present the roadmap for Dell Latitude tSxJ Alps Dual Pointing analysis. All of this is possible since we have improved the general understanding of aerosol life cy- cle, which enabled us to improve the description of radiative forcing and different feedbacks.
It also allowed us to assess aerosol effects on climate and air quality and Dell Latitude tSxJ Alps Dual Pointing a range of abatement strategies. Integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales 1. Identify and quantify the processes and sources governing global and regional aerosol concentra- tions. Quantify the physico-chemical properties of atmo- spheric aerosols. Quantify the feedback processes that link climate change and atmospheric aerosol concentrations with emphasis on the production and loading of nat- Dell Latitude tSxJ Alps Dual Pointing aerosols and their precursors. Particularly in mountainous regions like the Alps, accurate prediction and observation of snow accumulation are relevant not only for tourism but also for avalanche warning services. The amount of accumulated snowfall over land has also an important reservoir—function in the hydrological cycle.
Snowfall is a key quantity in the mass balance of the polar ice caps.
A com- prehensive understanding of snowfall is thus essential to improve climate model predictions. As the predominant type of precipitation at high latitudes Fig. Thus, it is assumed that snowfall can modify ocean surface buoyancy and deep water forma- tion Liu and Curry, As mentioned above snow covered surfaces isolate the underlying surface from the air above. In this respect, accurate prediction of snow Dell Latitude tSxJ Alps Dual Pointing — which is 1.
Characterization of snowfall using ground–based passive and active remote sensors
Motivation 3 Figure 1. A surface covered with snow has a higher albedo2 typically 0. A quantitative analysis of the global impact of Dell Latitude tSxJ Alps Dual Pointing snow cover on temperature and atmospheric dynamics is given by Vavrus In an experiment with a global climate model GCM all snowfall over land was converted into its liquid water equivalent before reaching the surface. The simulation without snow cover produced 5 K higher mean—annual surface air temp eratures over North America and Eurasia and an 8—10 K rise in temperatures during wintertime, compared to the control run.
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This rain formation process is particularly common for mid and high latitudes. Introduction numerical weather prediction NWP models Lynn et al. In many of those models snowfall is neglected or only a diagnostic variable. Consequently, the spatial distribution and global average amount of cloud ice predicted by climate models has been found to deviate dramatically from satellite observations Waliser et al. Their analysis of CloudSat observations Fig.
This high concentration of ice in the equatorial region is associated with anvils of mesoscale convective systems. Accurate surface—based in situ measurements of snowfall are only sporadically available around the globe; most operational stations only provide cumulative amounts of snowfall over the range of hours.
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- (PDF) Characterization of snowfall using ground–based passive and active remote sensors
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